CCS Logistics – Feasibility study on CCS logistics

Project name

CCS Logistics – Feasibility study on CCS logistics


Biozin Holding AS

Time span



Norconsult performed a feasibility study on behalf of Biozin Holding that focused on establishing intermediate storage concepts and loading/offloading facilities for the export of liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) captured from Biozin's planned advanced biofuel production plant at Jordøya, in Åmli municipality. The liquid CO2 was intended to be transported by railcar to the Port of Grenland for intermediate storage in joint operation with the capture plant being built for Norcem Cement at the same location.

CO2 was intended to be captured from the steam methane reforming process (SMR) in the plant, where light hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis and hydroconversion processes are reformed to hydrogen and CO2. After capture, CO2 is purified and liquefied according to Northern Lights specifications. The study involved evaluating the railway logistics chain between Jordøya and the Port of Brevik, considering infrastructure, equipment, regulations, and key planning factors for transporting liquid CO2.


The feasibility study meticulously examined multiple aspects of transporting and storing liquid CO2 from Jordøya to the Port of Brevik. Two options for CO2 transportation were evaluated, involving daily and alternate-day railcar shipments. The study included an in-depth assessment of railcar logistics, required infrastructure upgrades, offloading facilities, and potential cost-saving opportunities through shared resources.

Norconsult designed a 1600 m3 intermediate storage facility at Jordøya. The concept included alternative loading station configurations, balanced against operational efficiency and project costs. The Brevik modifications encompassed new railway tracks to handle 16 railcars and vertical insulated pressure vessels for 3400 m3 of liquid CO2 storage. Careful consideration was given to integrating the new features with existing infrastructure, managing boil-off gas, and maintain operational efficiency.

Norconsult calculated the greenhouse gas emissions under various electricity mixes, illustrating that the emissions represent only a small fraction of the total captured CO2, where to logistics-only section of the project ranged from 0.2 to 1.1% of the yearly capture. The study also performed a hazard identification and risk analysis at both locations, with recommendations for mitigation measures and updates to existing risk profiles.


Overall, the study presented a comprehensive approach, weaving together technical configurations, regulatory considerations, operational dynamics, and financial facets, reflecting Norconsult's expertise in the field. Norconsult successfully delivered a feasibility study, mapping the processes and investment costs for liquid CO2 transport from Jordøya to the Port of Brevik. Key findings included optimal transport options, with estimated annual operating costs for the two main scenarios.

Proposed designs for intermediate storage and loading/offloading facilities at both locations, with investment cost breakdowns for alternative concepts. A careful consideration of greenhouse gas emissions and alignment with Norway's environmental goals. Critical insights into safety and risk, outlining the necessary steps to ensure compliance with existing regulations and risk mitigation.

The study equips Biozin Holding AS with crucial information and well-defined concepts to move forward with the project decision-making.

Interdisciplinary collaboration