CCS - Feasibility study for liquefaction and transport of CO2 for decarbonization of incineration plant

Norconsult has carried out a feasibility study for the regional incineration plant operated by Returkraft AS, in order to investigate the conditioning, liquefaction, intermediate storage and transport of CO2 from carbon capture facilities to CO2 port terminal for further handling. The facility currently emits 140 000 tonnes of CO2 per year, approximately 30% of Kristiansand Municipality's total emissions.

Project name

CCS - Feasibility study for liquefaction and transport of CO2 for decarbonization of incineration plant


Returkraft AS



Time span


Key figures

• 140 000 tonnes CO2 per year • Decarbonization • Logistics solutions • Process simulations • Greenhouse gas calculations


Norconsult assisted Returkraft AS in exploring the feasibility of carbon capture from the plant exhaust gas. Norconsult scope was to evaluate technical solutions for condition, liquefaction and intermediate storage of CO2. In addition, alternative transport solutions were evaluated.


Norconsult explored several concept solutions for handling the CO2 value chain from conditioning, liquefaction, intermediate storage to transport to the port location for shipment.

As part of the study, greenhouse gas calculations were carried out to assess the total greenhouse gas emissions of establishment and operation of the proposed concepts.

Transport solutions evaluated were train, road tanker and pipeline transport. Process simulations were used to develop a pipeline concept. Concepts for handling and transport solutions were cost-estimated and evaluated against each other based on a multi-criteria matrix. Technical safety and assessments of risk factors associated with the handling and transport of CO2 were also evaluated.


Based on an assessment of technical feasibility, costs and greenhouse gas emissions, transport by road tanker to a local port or train transport both locally and regionally showed to be preferable logistic solutions.

The technical feasibility and logistic study were used as basis for applications for CCS funding programs and regional cluster collaborations.


  • Annette Hultin


  • Stian Carl Erichsen

    Prosjektdirektør Energigasser

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    Interdisciplinary collaboration